Mycoplasmas represent the smallest known free-living forms. They are classified as a prokaryote, a cellular organism that lacks a nucleus and nuclear membrane. Their nuclear material consists of a single double-stranded DNA molecule. Mycoplasmas appear to cause infection primarily as extracellular parasites.Mycoplasmas represent the smallest known free-living forms. They are virus-like infectious agents classified between a virus and bacteria in complexity, known as prokaryotes, cellular organisms lacking a nucleus and nuclear membrane. Their nuclear material consists of a single double-stranded DNA molecule. They appear to cause infection primarily as extra-cellular parasites and can be spread as airborne particles or via direct contact between individuals.Mycoplasmas hide intra-cellularly in a manner similar to the the borrellia spirochete (Lyme Disease), not inter-cellularly like bacteria. Mycoplasma infections produce toxic oxygen radicals that contribute to oxidative stress. They attach to lymphocytes, allowing for intracellular penetration and have the unique ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, providing access to the spinal fluid and central nervous system. Here they are reported to act on the CNS hypothalamus/pituitary/adrenal axis hormones affecting virtually all bodily functions. MSA testing may identify the specific Mycoplasmal entities.Considerable research is being done where mycoplasma bacterium are concerned and the presence of systemic mycoplasmal infections in the blood of Gulf War veterans has generated much interest. In fact, every Gulf War patient with ALS that was tested for mycoplasma infection tested positive for M fermentans except one and he tested positive for M. genitalium. This is also the case with ALS patients where Mycoplasm fermentans, Mycoplasm hominis tested positive in virtually every case tested.Recent publications indicate the genital mycoplasmas (M. hominis, M. genitalium and Urreaplasma urealyticum) may cause serious infections involving the respiratory tract, heart, blood stream, central nervous system, sternotomy wounds, and prosthetic valves and joints of infants and adults.